UPSC/IAS Philosophy Optional Important Topics for
CS (MAINS)-2017:


Western Philosophy

Plato Theory of Knowledge
Aristotle Causation
Descartes Method and Influence
Spinoza Substance and Freedom & Determinism
Leibnitz Paradoxes of Monadology
Hume Empriricism and Causation
Kant Synthetic Apriori Judgements and Space & Time
Moore Commonsense
Russell Logical Atomism
Wittgenstein Language Games
Sartre Freedom and Bad Faith
Quine Reaction against Logical Positivism.

Indian Philosophy

  • Cārvāka — Materialism
  • Jaina — Pluralistic Realism, Bondage & Liberation
  • Buddhism — Ś unyavāda and Pr at ītyasmutpāda
  • Saṅ khya — Prakṛti and its relation with Puruṣa
  • Yoga — Samādhi and Aṣ ṭāṅga Yoga
  • Vais̀es ̣ika — Categories
  • Nyāya and Indian Epistemology — Perception, Inference, Hetvābhāsa , Upamāna , Anupalabdhi, Prāmāṇ yavāda , Causation and Khyātivada
  • Vedānta — Māyā , Brahman- Jīva Relation, Bondage & Liberation, Śaṅ kara Crypto Buddhist
  • Aurobindo — Integral Yoga.



  • Equality, Freedom & Justice
  • Sovereignty – Bodin and Kautilya
  • Individual and State – Rights and Duties
  • Forms of Government – Democracy
  • Political Ideologies – Anarchism and Communism
  • Humanism and Secularism
  • Crime and Punishment – Genocide and Preventive theory of Punishment and Capital Punishment
  • Gender Issues – Gender discrimination and streams of faminist movements.
  • Ambedkar – Social Reformer not a Revolter.


  • God – Ontological and cosmological arguments, Attributes and Notions of God
  • Instrumentalist and Freewillist solutions of problem of evil
  • Rebirth and Liberation
  • Religious knowledge and Language including Faith and Belief
  • Religion and Morality
  • Religious Pluralism and Tolerance.