How To Prepare for UPSC/IAS Mains Optional Philosophy

How To Prepare :

Like Any Other Optional Subjects Philosophy Has Also Two Papers In Main Examination And These Two Papers Have Been Divided In Two Subsections. First Paper Is Related With Philosophical Theories And Thinkers In Which Indian And Western Thinkers Have Been Included; While The Second Paper Is Related With Philosophical Problems In Which Religious And Socio-political Problems Have Been Included. Lecture Plan Is enclosed For Clarification Of Syllabus.

Western Philosophy:

Idealism of Plato and his Impact on whole Western Philosophy. Aristotle's Scientific Theory of Causation, Matter and Form. Mathematical Philosophy of Rationalist like Descartes, Spinoza and Leibnitz. In Empiricist school the Philosophy of Locke, Berkeley and Hume. The Critical Philosophy of Kant and Comparison with Vedanta Philosophy. Hegel's absolute Idealism and Dialectic. The Turner of Western Philosophy G.E. Moore and his Neo Realism. Russell's Analytical and Mathematical Philosophy. Linguistic Philosophy of Early and Later Wittgenstein. th Logical Positivism as the Philosophical Revolution of 20 Century and It's Verification Principle & Elimination of Metaphysics. Phenomenology of Husserl and Avoidance of Psychologism. Existentialism of Kierkegaard, Sartre and Heidegger. Radical Empiricism of Quine. Strawson's theory of Basic Particulars and Person.

Indian Philosophy:

Charvaka's Epistemology and materialistic Metaphysics. Jain's Theory of Reality, Nayas and Bondage & Liberation. Basic Principles of Buddhism with it's Branches. Epistemological and Metaphysical Theories of Nyaya-Vaisheshikas. Samkhya Darshana and it's basic Principles. Yoga Darshana's Theory of Chitta and Ashtanga Yoga.


Theory of Knowledge of Mimamsa Darshana. Vidanta Darshana of Shamkara, Ramanuja & Madhvacharya. Philosophy of Aurbindo-Evolution, involution and integral yoga.

Socio-Political Philosophy:

Equality, freedom and justice as socio-political ideals and their philosophical meanings. Concept of sovereignty of Bodin, Austin, Laski and Kautilya in the present aspect. Rights, Duties and Accountability as relation between Individual and State. Monarchy, Theocracy and Democracy as forms of government and Democracy as “Life Style”. Anarchism, Marxism and Socialism as Political Ideologies and their Philosophical Dimensions. Conceptual Study of Humanism, Secularism and Multi-Culturalism in Contemporary World. Corruption, Mass Violence, Genocide and Capital Punishment under Crime and Punishment. Status of development and social progress have we actually done the progress? Female foeticide, land-property rights and empowerment of women. Gandhi and Ambedkar on Caste Discrimination.

Philosophy of Religion:

Attributes of God, various proofs for his existence and his relation with man and the world. Problem of evil and efforts for solution. Immortality of soul, rebirth and liberation. Object of religious experience and reason, Revelation and faith as the sources of religious knowledge. Nature of analogical and symbolic religious language, cognitivist and non-cognitivist theories. Religion without God. Religion and Morality. Religious Pluralism and the Problem of absolute truth.