VVR

Philosophy Syllabus:


CLARIFICATION OF SYLLABUS

Like Any Other Optional Subjects Philosophy Has Also Two Papers In Main Examination And These Two Papers Have Been Divided In Two Subsections. First Paper Is Related With Philosophical Theories And Thinkers In Which Indian And Western Thinkers Have Been Included; While The Second Paper Is Related With Philosophical Problems In Which Religious And Socio-political Problems Have Been Included. Lecture Plan Is Inclosed For Clarification Of Syllabus.

MAINS – PAPER – I

History and Problems of Philosophy (WESTERN AND INDIAN)

  • Idealism Of Plato And His Impact On Whole Western Philosophy.
  • Aristotle’s Scientific Theory Of Causation, Matter And Form.
  • Mathematical Philosophy Of Rationalist Like Descartes, Spinoza And Leibnitz.
  • In Empiricist School The Philosophy Of Locke, Berkeley And Hume.
  • The Critical Philosophy Of Kant And Comparison With Vedanta Philosophy.
  • Hegel’s Absolute Idealism And Dialectic.
  • The Turner Of Western Philosophy G.e. Moore And His Neo Realism.
  • Russell’s Analytical And Mathematical Philosophy.
  • Linguistic Philosophy Of Early And Later Wittgenstein.
  • Logical Positivism As The Philosophical Revolution Of 20th Century And It’s Verification Principle & Elimination Of Metaphysics.
  • Phenomenology Of Husserl And Avoidance Of Psychologism.
  • Existentialism Of Kierkegaard, Sartre And Heidegger.
  • Radical Empiricism Of Quine.
  • Strawson’s Theory Of Basic Particulars And Person.

Lecture Plan of Western Philosophy:

Western Philosophy An Introduction:
Greek Period, Medieval Period, Modern And Contemporary Period. Characteristics Of Western Philosophy And It Distinction From Indian Philosophy.

Plato:
Plato As A Perfect Greek, What Are The Ideas? Realism Of Ideas, Characteristics Of Ideas, Pyramidical System Of Ideas, Example Of Cave, Plato’s Epistemology As Criticism Of Sophists, Example Of Vertical Line, Theory Of Soul And God, Plato’s Criticism By Aristotle And It’s Evaluation.

Aristotle:
Aristotle As An Encyclopedic Genius. Theory Of Four Causes And Its Co-ordination. Matter And Form, Their Relation And Results, Concept Of God And Evaluation Of Aristotle’s Philosophy.

Rationalist Descartes:
Origin And Features Of Rationalism, Descartes As Father Of Modern Western Philosophy, Philosophical Method, Sceptic Process Of Knowing. “I Think Therefore I Am”, Theory Of Three Substances, Interactionism As Mind-body Relation.

Rationalist Spinoza:
Spinoza And Descartes, Spinoza’s Theory Of Substance And Its Geometrical Explanation, Pantheism, Relation Between God And World. Determinism And Freewill, Comparison Between Pantheism And Theism, Spinoza’s Theory Of Attributes And Modes.

Rationalist Leibnitz:
Journey Of Rationalism From Descartes To Leibnitz. Theory Of Substance It’s Features, System And Concerning Problems And Solution. Leibnitz Concept Of God And Pre-established Harmony, Evaluation Of Leibnitz Philosophy.

Empiricist Locke:
Rise And Features Of Empiricism, Locke’s Refutation Of Innate Ideas, Epistemology Of Locke, Ideas And Its Types, Type And Limits Of Knowledge, Locke’s Three Substances As Matter, Self And God, Locke’s Theory Of Qualities And Evaluation Of Locke’s Philosophy.

Empiricist Berkeley:
Berkeley And Locke. Berkeley’s Criticism Of Locke’s Material Objects. Idealism Of Berkeley. Is Berkeley A Subjective Idealist? Berkeley’s Concept Of God And Evaluation Of Berkeley’s Philosophy.

Empiricist Hume:
Journey Of Empiricism From Locke To Hume, Hume’s Epistemology. Impressions And Ideas. Hume’s Theory Of Causation And Scepticism. His Concept Of Self And Personal Identity And Evaluation Of Hume’s Philosophy.

Immanuel Kant:
Representative Of A Philosophical Era. Kant’s Critical, Transcendental, Idealism. Co-ordination Of Rationalism And Empiricism, Kantian Epistemology And Possibility Of Synthetic Apriori Judgements And It’s Review, Concept Of Space And Time, Kant’s Theory Categories, Paralogisms Contradictions And Antinomies As Transcendental Illusion.

Hegel:
What Is Absolutism? Hegel’s Absolute Idealism, Identity Of Real And Rational, Dialectic Method And It’s Review.

G.E. Moore:
First Thinker Of Contemporary Western Philosophy. Refutation Of Idealism And Defence Of Common Sense And Neo-realism.

Russell:
Difference Between Name And Description Theory Of Description, Indefinite And Definite Descriptions, Incomplete Symbol And Logical Construction, Russell’s Logical Atomism, Atom And It’s Types, Fact And It’s Types, Proposition And It’s Types.

Wittgenstein:
A Linguistic Philosopher. In Early Wittgenstein Picture Theory Of Meaning And Difference Between Saying And Showing, In Later Wittgenstein Meaning And Use, Language Game And Critique Of Private Language.

Logical Positivism:
A Philosophical Revolution Of 20th Century. Schlick’s, Carnep’s And Ayer’s Verification Principles. Elimination Of Metaphysics And Linguistic Theory Of Necessary Proposition.

Husserl:
A Phenomenologist. Phenomenological Method Epoche And Reduction. Consciousness And Subjectivity, Avoidance Of Psychologism.

Existentialism:
Main Features Of Existentialism. Kierkegard’s Truth Is Subjectivity, Sartre’s Existence And Essence, Freedom Choice And Accountability, Heidegger’s Being In The World, Existent Human Or Dasein, Inauthentic And Authentic Existence.

Quine:
Critique Of Empiricism. Attack On Analytical And Syntheitical Statement. Refutation Of Reductionism.

Strawson:
Theory Of Basic Particualrs. Ownership And No-ownership Theories Of Person And Strawson Criticism. Person As Primitive Concept.


Indian Philosophy Syllabus:

  • Charvaka’s Epistemology And Materialistic Metaphysics.
  • Jain’s Theory Of Reality, Nayas And Bondage & Liberation.
  • Basic Principles Of Buddhism With It’s Branches.
  • Epistemological And Metaphysical Theories Of Nyaya-vaisheshikas.
  • Samkhya Darshana And It’s Basic Principles.
  • Yoga Darshana’s Theory Of Chitta And Ashtanga Yoga.
  • Theory Of Knowledge Of Mimamsa Darshana.
  • Vedanta Darshana Of Shamkara, Ramanuja & Madhvacharya.
  • Philosophy Of Aurbindo-evolution, Involution And Integral Yoga.

Lecture Plan of Indian Philosophy:

Indian Philosophy An Introduction:
The Meaning And Features Of Indian Philosophy, Blames On Indian Philosophy And Their Answer, Orthodox And Heterodox Branches Of Indian Philosophy, Development Of Indian Philosophical Literature.

Charvaka Darshana:
Origin And Sources. Perception As One And Only Pramana Refutation Of Inference. Materialistic Metaphysics And Hedonistic Ethics Of Charvaka.

Jaina Darshana:
Lord Mahavira And Origin Of Jainism, Theory Of Reality, Anekantavada Nayavada, Syadavada And Theory Of Bondage And Liberation.

Bauddha Darshana:
Lord Buddha And Origin Of Buddhism, Vaibhashika And Sautrantika Under Hinayana, Shunyavada And Vigyanvada Under Mahayana. Four Nobel Truths, Ashtangika Marga Pratityasamutpada Kshnikavada And Anatmavada.

Samkhya Darshna:
Origin And Sources, Dwaitavada Of Samkhya, Nature Of Prakriti, Argument For Existence Of Prakriti And Evolutionism, Nature Of Purusha And Argument For Its Existence And Multiplicity, Theory Of Bondage And Liberation.

Yoga Darshana:
Cittabhumi And Cittavritti Of Yoga. Klesha Samadhi And Kaivalaya.

Nyaya – Vaisheshika Darshana:
Scholars And Scripts, Nyaya – Vaisheka As Parallel, Schools. Padarthas And Paramanu Theory Of Vaisheshika. Self, God And Bondage And Liberation Of Nyaya.

Mimamsa Darshana:
Scholars And Scripts, Abhihitanavayavada, Anvitabhi Dhanvada Triputi Pratyakshavada And Gyatatavada.

Vedanta Darshana:
From Vedas To Vedanta. Advaitavada Of Shamkarachrya. Theory Of Bhraman Ishvara, Mayavada, Jiva, Adhyasa And Bondage And Liberation. Vishitadvaitvada Of Ramanujacharya, Ishvara, Jagata, Jiva And Bondage And Liberation. Dvaitvada Of Madhvacharya And Panchavidhabheda, Comparision Of Madhvacharya With Shamkaracharya And Ramanujacharya.

Aurbindo’s Darshana:
Evolution, Involution And Integral Yoga.

Epistemology Of Indian Philosophy:
Prama And Aprama, Pratyaksha, Anumana, Shabda, Upamana, Arthapatti And Anuplabdhi Pramanas Of Indian System. Theory Of Causation In Indian Philosophy, Satkaryavada And Asatkaryavada, Pramanyavada, Khyativada Or Theory Of Error In Indian Philosophy.


Mains Paper-II

Socio-Political Philosophy

  • Equality, Freedom And Justice As Socio-political Ideals And Their Philosophical Meaning.
  • Concept Of Sovereignty Of Bodin, Austin, Laski And Kautilya In The Present Aspect.
  • Rights, Duties And Accountability As Relation Between Individual And State.
  • Monarchy, Theocracy And Democracy As Forms Of Government And Democracy As “Life Style”.
  • Anarchism, Marxism And Socialism As Political Ideologies And Their Philosophical Dimensions.
  • Conceptual Study Of Humanism, Secularism And Multi-culturalism In Contemporary World.
  • Corruption, Mass Violence, Genocide And Capital Punishment Under Crime And Punishment.
  • Status Of Development And Social Progress Have We Actually Done The Progress?
  • Female Foeticide, Land-property Rights And Empowerment Of Women.
  • Gandhi And Ambedkar On Caste Discrimination.

Lecture Plan of Socio-Political Philosophy:

Introduction Of Socio-political Philosophy
What Is Society? Sociology And Social Philosophy. Political Science And Political Philosophy. Definition, Nature And Scope Of Socio-political Philosophy.

Equality, Freedom And Justice As Socio-political Ideals:
European Renaissence And Political Ideals. Necessity Of Equality, It’s Philosophical Meaning And Various Dimensions. Negative And Positive Meanings Of Freedom And It’s Various Dimensions, Justice And It’s Changing Approach, Thoughts Of Plato, Aristotle And Different Features Of Justice As A Modern Socio-political Ideals.

Sovereignty As An Integral Part Of State:
Meaning, Features And Types Of Sovereignty, Evaluation Of Singular Sovereignty Of Bodin And Legal Soveveignty Of Austin. Pluralistic Sovereignty Of Laski And Kautilya’s Concept Of Sovereiglty.

Rights, Duties And Accountability As Relation Between Individual And State:
Individualistic, Idealistic, Anarchist, Totalitarian And Socialistic Approaches Regarding Relation Between Individual And State. Rights And Its Theories And Relation With Duties. Accountability And Concerning Problems.

Forms Of Government:
Theocracy It’s Features And Causes Of Declination, Causes Behind The Rise Of Monarchy And It’s Positive And Negative Outcomes. Meaning, Definition, Types, Ideals And Merits-demeits Of Democracy. Necessary And Sufficient Conditions For Democracy. Democracy As A Life-style.

Political Ideologies:
What Is Socialism? Developing And Revolutionary Socialism And Merits-demerits Of Socialism. Sources Of Marxism, Process, Objectives, Theories And Evaluation Of Marxism And Its Comparision With Socialism. Anarchism And Its Basic Features And Marxist, Terrorist And Non-violent Or Moral Anarchism.

Conceptual Study Of Humanism Secularism And Multiculturism:
Rise Of These Thoughts, Metaphyisical And Epistemological Approaches Of Humanism And It’s Different Types. Origin Meaning And Basic Features Of Secularism And Characteristics Of A Secular State. Culture, It’s Features, Cultural Diversity And It’s Reasons.

Crime And Punishment:
Their Necessity In Philosophy. What Is Crime? Corruption, Mass Violence, Genocide And Different Theories Of Punishment And Evaluation Of Capital Punishment.

Development And Social Progress:
What Is Development? Necessity Of Scientific Temper And It’s Positive And Negative Outcomes. Features And Conditions Of Progress And It’s Comparision With Development. Discussion Over The Question That Have We Actually Done The Progress?

Gender-discrimination And Gender Inequality:
Difference Between Gender And Sex, Gender Inequality And It’s Instances, Nature And Bases Of Gender Equality. Study Of Gender Inequality In Respect Of Indian Society And Efforts For Women Empowerment.

Caste-discrimination And Gandhi And Ambedkar:
Gandhian Sarvodaya Darshan As A Better Socialism And Better Option Of Revolution. Life History Of Ambedkar And Comarision Of Gandhi And Ambedkar On Caste-discrimination.

Philosophy of Religion Syllabus:

  • Attributes Of God, Various Proofs For His Existence And His Relation With Man And The World.
  • Problem Of Evil And Efforts For Solution.
  • Immortality Of Soul, Rebirth And Liberation.
  • Object Of Religious Experience And Reason, Revelation And Faith As The Sources Of Religious Knowledge. Nature Of Analogical And Symbolic Religious Language, Cognitivist And Non-cognitivist Theories.
  • Religion Without God.
  • Religion And Morality.
  • Religious Pluralism And The Problem Of Absolute Truth.

Lecture Plan of Philosophy of Religion:

Philosophy Of Religion An Introduction:
What Is Religion? What Is Philosophy? What Is Philosophy Of Religion? Difference Between Philosophy Of Religion And Theology. Utility Of Philosophy Of Religion.

God As A Basic Problem Of Philosophy Of Religion:
Meaning Of Existence Of God, Cosmological Argument, Teleological Argument, Moral Argument Of Kant, Argument Of Religious Experiences, Ontological Argument And Their Evaluation, Discussion Over The Attributes Of God, Proofs Against The Existence Of God And Their Evaluation.

Problem Of Evil:
What Is Evil? Types Of Evil Clarification Of Problem Of Evil, Discussion And Evaluation Of Different Solutions Of Problem Of Evil.

Immortality Of Soul, Rebirth And Liberation:
What Is Soul? Different Types Of Immortality, Evaluation Of Arguments Given By Various Thinkers For And Against Immortality, Rebirth And Its Possibility. Meaning And Types Of Liberation. Detail Discussion Over Different Paths Of Liberation.

Religious Experience, Religious Knowledge And Religious Language:
What Is Religious Experience? How It Is Different From Other Experiences? Discussion Over Factuality Of Religious Experience, Importance Of Reason, Revelation And Faith As The Means Of Religious Knowledge, Discussion Over The Mystical Features Of Religious Knowledge. What Is Religious Language? Analogical And Symbolic Theories And Cognitivist And Non-cognitivist Opinions In Respect Of Religious Language.

Religion Without God:
Is Religion Without God Possible? Buddhism, Jainism And Humanism As Such Religion, Are These Religions Actually Without God? Critical Examination Of Arguments For And Against.

Religion And Morality:
What Is Religion? What Is Morality, Discussions Over Questions Like, Is Religion The Basis Of Morality? Are They Complementary To Each Other? Is Religion Hurdle In Morality? Is Morality Necessary For Religion?

Religious Plurality And Problem Of Absolute Truth:
Different Faiths Claiming The Truth, Structure Of Religious Plurality, Different Solutions Of Concept And “A Religion”.