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Philosophy - Optional Question Paper Analysis:

We have uploaded Few Questions after Analysing Question Papers of Philosophy Optional -2013 UPSC / IAS .

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Question No. 1-(e):  Three types of transcendental illusions are discussed by Kant – paralogisms contradictions and antinomies. They are respectively related with soul, God and the world as a whole. Four major antinomies discussed by Kant and they are regarding Quality, Quality, Relation and Modality. Here he says that if we do not care about limitations of understanding then we can prove both thesis and antitheses at a time.

Question No. 2-(d):   Although Spinoza is a determinist, but when he talks human life then he discusses both bondage and freedom, which are respectively related with external and internal control on the life. While former is against morality then latter famous the morality.

Question No. 3-(d):   Although Sartre, being an existentialist focuses upon human existence, but did not ignore the material world and other human being. So here are three dimensions of existence in philosophy of centre and they are- material objects, conscious human being and other human being. For first two he had respectively used the terms Being-for itself and Being .in itself.

Question No. 4-(d):   A true empiricist Hume is agnostic regarding any metaphysics including self, but he said that at most soul could be accepted as the bundle of ideas or consciousness. He also rejects the personal identity but his views are criticized by so many thinkers including Strawson.

Question No. 5-(a):   The root of Jaina Philosophy is theory of reality in which they have reconcelliated the change and the eternity. So they went in the direction of Anekantavada - Nayavada and Syadvada: are respectively related with their Metaphysics, Epistemology and Linguistics.

Question No. 6-(a):   The Philosophy of Madhavacharya is basically known as dualism, but he talks about five fundamental differences : God –Jiva, God-Jada, Jiva –Jiva, Jada –Jada and Jiva –jada, on this basis he has criticized the Advaitavada of Shankaracharya and proved his Dvaitavada.

Question No. 7-(a):   Vyapti, according to Nyaya philosophy is the base of Anumana (Inference). This is an invariable relation and permanent co-existence is there, such as Smoke and Fire. That’s why it is said that “All the places of Smoke are the places of Fire” in order to establish this on the basis of Tarka (Logic) they have said that since it’s contradictory statement can’t be proved true, so this statement is true.

Question No. 8-(a):   Sunyavada is highest Philosophical theory of Buddhism because it is based upon for corneunegalion (Catuskotivinirmukta). According to it the reality cauit be determined, such as –Nirvana. Therefore it rejects everything that can be positively determined as any object, attribute, religion etc.